Assignments of Engineer Abdlellatif

HR EXAM SHEET

What Is Human Resource Management: The process of acquiring, training, appraising, and compensating employees, and of attending to their labor relations, health and safety, and fairness concerns. Line Manager : Is authorized (has line authority) to direct the work of subordinates and is responsible for accomplishing the organization’s tasks.  Line managers manage operational functions that are crucial for the company’s survival. Staff Manager (HR): Assists and advises line managers.  /  Staff managers run departments that are advisory or supportive, like purchasing, HRM, and quality control. Line Managers’ HRM Duties 1)Placing the right person on the right job 2)Starting new employees in the organization (orientation)  3)Training employees for jobs that are new to them. Staff Manager: Line Function: Line Authority (within HR  Dept)  $ Coordinative Function: Functional Authority (with Line Mgrs.) $ Staff Functions Staff Authority Advocacy (With Line Mgrs.).  Trends Shaping Human Resource Management: 1.Trends in the Nature of Work.   2. Economic Challenges and Trends     3.Workforce and Demographic Trends. 4.Technological Trends.    5.Globalization and Competition Trends.   New trends in HRM: Strategic HRM: Managing Ethics /   Strategic HR  / HR Certification  /  High-Performance Work Systems /Evidence-Based HRM    Sexual Harassment: Harassment on the basis of sex that has the purpose or effect of interfering with a person’s work performance or creating an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.  Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA): Discrimination is forbidden by law for characteristics as gender, race, age, religion, sexual orientation, and in employment decisions. PEST: is a strategy tool that helps understand the business environment and assess the market for a business.t Corporate Level Strategy: identifies the portfolio of businesses that comprise the company and the ways in which these businesses are related to each other.  / Diversification strategy implies that the firm will expand by adding new product lines. /Vertical integration strategy means the firm expands by producing its own raw materials.   /Consolidation strategy reduces the company’s size. Geographic expansion.       Business Level/ Competitive Strategy: Competitive advantages enable a company to differentiate its product or service from those of its competitors. Cost-leadership strategy implies that the firm aims to become the low-cost leader in an industry. Differentiation strategy: a firm seeks to be unique in its industry along dimensions that are widely valued by buyers. Functional Strategy: Identify the basic course of action that each department will pursue in order to help the business attain its competitive goals. The MBO process: 1.Set overall organizational goals.  2.Set departmental goals. 3.Discuss departmental goals with subordinates. 4.Set individual goals and timetables.  5.Give feedback on progress toward goal.   Strategic Human Resource Management: The linking of HRM with strategic goals and objectives in order to improve business performance and develop organizational cultures that foster innovation and flexibility. Job Analysis : The procedure of determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it. Job Description : A list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities—one product of a job analysis.  Job Specification : A list of a job’s “human requirements”: the desired education, skills, personality, and so on—another product of a job analysis.     Steps in doing job analysis:  Decide how you’ll use the information.   /Review relevant background information.    /Select representative positions.   /Actually analyze the job. /Verify the job analysis information.   /Develop a job description and job specification.

Methods for collecting job analysis:-  1)The Interview:  Advantages: Quick, direct way to find overlooked information Disadvantage: Distorted information                                                                                                                   2.Questionnaires  Advantages : Efficient way to gather information from large numbers of employeesDisadvantages:  Expense and time consumed in preparing and testing the questionnaire                                3.Observation:   Advantages:  Provides first-hand information   / Reduces distortion of information             Disadvantages: Time consuming       /Reactivity response distorts employee behavior    /Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity                                                           4.Participant Diaries/Logs:  Advantages:   Produces a more complete picture of the job   /Employee participation  Disadvantages:  Distortion of information    /Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities The Recruitment and Selection Process: Decide what positions to fill through. 2.Build a candidate pool.  3. Have candidates complete application forms to undergo screening 4. Use selection tools to identify viable candidates.5. Decide who to make an offer.  6. Hire the selected candidate; candidate becomes employee. Succession Planning: The process of deciding how to fill the company’s most important executive jobs.   Trend analysis: Study of a firm’s past employment needs over a period of years to predict future needs. Locating Outside Candidates: Recruiting via the Internet   /  Advertising   /Employment Agencies   /Referrals and Walk-ins   /  Headhunters   /  College Recruiting.  A- Recruiting via the Internet: Advantages: Cost-effective way to publicize job openings   / More applicants attracted over a longer period  /Links to other job search sites   /Automation of applicant tracking and evaluation Disadvantages Unqualified applicants overload the system /Personal information privacy concerns of applicants                                                                                                                                                                                                               Why Use a Private Employment Agency? No HR department: / to fill a particular opening quickly. / To attract more minority labor (ex: female applicants). / To reduce internal time devoted to recruiting. / Employee Referrals. Walk-ins. / The Recruiting Yield Pyramid: Used by some employers to calculate the number of applicants they must generate to hire the required number of new employees. Reliability: Describes the consistency of scores obtained by the same person when retested with the identical forms of the same test. Validity: Indicates whether a test is measuring what it is supposed to be measuring.  Types of Tests:- Cognitive tests: (intelligence) and tests of specific mental.  Physical Abilities: To measure physical abilities as strength and stamina. Personality Tests: To measure personal characteristics. The Big Five Extraversion: focusing attention on, and drawing energy from the outer world of people and things. Emotional Stability/ Neuroticism: is a long-term tendency to be in a negative emotional state. Openness to experience: Openness to experience describes a dimension of cognitive style that distinguishes imaginative, creative people from down-to-earth, conventional people                                                           Agreeableness: reflects individual differences in concern with cooperation and social harmony. Conscientiousness: concerns the way in which individuals control, regulate, and direct their impulses.                      A selection interview is basically the interview between the employer and the candidate (whether an external or an internal candidate) who has applied to a job.  A job analysis interview is the interview conducted between human resources and other departments in the organization to determine the job specification and the job description. A job interview is a meeting organized by a recruiter used to evaluate a potential employee for prospective employment at a company. Job interviews typically precede a hiring decision and are usually part of the assessment process. Situational interview: A series of job-related questions which focus on how the candidate would behave in a given situation. Behavioral interviews: A series of job-related questions that focus on how they reacted to actual situations in the past. Job-related interview: A series of job-related questions which focuses on relevant past job-related behaviors. Stress interview: to test an employee’s tolerance whether hypersensitive or has high tolerance. In-person one to one Interviews – tend to be one-on-one where two people meet alone and one interviews the other by seeking oral responses to oral inquiries. Frequently, candidates are interviewed by several persons sequentially. Panel Interviews – occur when a group (panel) of interviewers questions the candidate together. Mass interview is where a panel interviews several candidates simultaneously. List and explain the main errors that can undermine an interview’s usefulness  A. First Impressions  –B.  Misunderstanding the Job –C. Nonverbal Behavior –.D. Effect of Personal Characteristics:      E. Interviewer’s inadvertent Behavior                                                                            the Structured Situational interview   Step 1 Analyze the job. Step 2 Rate the job’s main duties. Step 3: Create interview questions. Step 4: Create benchmark answers. Step 5: Appoint the interview panel and conduct interviews. How to Conduct a More Effective Interview  Know the job. Structure the interview. Prepare for the interview. Establish rapport. Ask questions. Take brief notes. Close the interview. Review the interview. Purpose of orientation: Feel welcome and at ease / Understand the organization / Know what is expected in work and  behavior.  / Begin the socialization process.  An orientation typically includes information on employee benefits, personnel policies, the daily routine, company organization and operations, safety measures and regulations, and a facilities tour.                        The Four-Step Training Process:-  In the needs analysis step, identify the specific knowledge and skills the job requires. In the instructional design, formulate specific, measurable objectives, and estimate a budget for the training program. Implement the program, In the evaluation step, assess the program’s success (or failures).  TNA (Needs Assessment) answers 3 questions: Organization: What is the context in which training will occur? Employee: Who needs training? Task: What subjects should the training cover?    Reasons to appraise employees:  1. Administration purpose: promotion, pay increase, career planning.   2. Development purposes: identify employee’s competency gaps to correct them, evaluate effectiveness of development programs, plays an important role in performance management.   Performance management is the continuous process of identifying, measuring, and developing the performance of individuals and teams and aligning their performance with the organization’s goals. Importance of Performance Management: A continuous process for continuous improvement /  A strong linkage of individual and team goals to strategic goals. / A constant reevaluation and modification of work processes.  Potential appraisal problems Unclear standards / Central tendency / Leniency or strictness / Bias. Phases of PMP 1.Establish Target Setting 2. Formal review,  Final rating, Sign form  3. Informal Coaching   The Supervisor’s Role : Usually do the actual appraising / Must be familiar with basic appraisal techniques. / Must understand and avoid problems that can cripple appraisals. / Must know how to conduct appraisals fairly.  The HR Department’s Role serves a policy-making and advisory role. / Provides advice on the appraisal tool to use. / Trains supervisors / Techniques for appraising performance Graphic Rating Scales / Alternation ranking . Forced distribution  / Narrative form / Critical Incident / Computerized and web-based performance appraisal. / Merged Methods (Mixed Standards Scale. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: 1. Physiological (food) 2.  Security/ Safety 3.  Social/ Belonging (family)  4. Self-esteem (respect) 5. Self-actualization (becoming a whole person) .  Competency based pay Pros :   Higher calibers    Lower absenteeism                                                                                                               Cons :  Costs of paying for unused knowledge, skills, and behaviors                                                                                                                                                                                    Companies pay employees based on: 1. Company’s strategic goals 2.Budget  3. Employee’s needs                                                                              Steps in Establishing Pay Rates  1. Conduct a salary survey of what other employers are paying for comparable jobs (to help ensure external equity).    2. Determine the worth of each job in your organization through job evaluation (to ensure internal equity).                                                                                                                                                                                                 Establish Pay rates:-Self-Conducted Surveys /Consulting Firms /Agencies /Government /The Internet                                                                                                                                                                   Compensable factors are certain basic factors the jobs have in common that are used to establish how the jobs compare to one another, and that determine the pay for each job. Job Evaluation Methods: The point method – is a more quantitative technique, involves identifying (1) several compensable factors, each having several degrees, as well as (2) the degree to which each of these factors is present in the job.

 

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